# Quality Assurance

### by Katie Dunn and Patrick Xia

We are presented with an Einstein logic puzzle and its solution, which claims the answer is RED HERRING. However, the solution is too vague to follow, e.g. in the first line of the solution, it seems to assume there is a unique cold-blooded animal when there are actually two. Ignoring the solution, we can solve the Einstein logic puzzle first.

Following the ten constraints given, we can solve the Einstein logic puzzle normally, obtaining the following solution if we have the correct set of biology facts (see Appendix 1).

Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
Dodo O O O
GeckoO O O
Portobello O O O
Potato O O O
Snail O O O
Diatom O O
E. coliO O
Jellyfish O O
Kelp O O
Sponge O O
Deciduous Forest O
Desert O
Rainforest O
Savanna O
TundraO

Overlaying our solution with the given grid, and reading the first several cells as the solution tells us to, we find the clue phrase FISHY THING, which helps confirm our work and that the solution isn’t entirely off.

Now that we have a solution, we can “check” the solution to see which facts were misinterpreted or wrong (as hinted by the flavortext). The authors' notes also teaches us how to follow the solution step by step without making additional logical leaps. We find that each numbered step in the solution makes an incorrect assumption that erroneously leads to a unique deduction. In each of these deductions, there are two possible options. Since the actual solution grid is unique and the authors of the solution arrived at the correct grid and answer, we can assume the authors picked the correct option each time. However, we should mark down the alternative possibility in each case (see Appendix 2).

Marking which deductions were incorrectly made and overlaying this once more with the given grid, we obtain the phrase ANS NEUTRINO, giving the answer NEUTRINO.

Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoPROFIBRINOLYSIN
GeckoHEREDITARYATOLL
PortobelloSTJOHNSLIFESPAN
PotatoORGANISMSDARWIN
SnailEVOLVESUBPHYLUM
DiatomANTIBIOTIC
E. coliMORPHOLOGY
JellyfishDENDROGRAM
KelpCOPENHAGEN
SpongeMICROSCOPE
Deciduous ForestFAUNA
DesertCLIME
RainforestFUNGI
SavannaONION
TundraOVARY

## Appendix 1 - Various Biology Facts

DodoGeckoPortobelloPotatoSnail
Lays eggs11001
Cold-blooded01001
Mollusk00001
Fungus00100
Has cell walls00110
FranklinGoodallLinneausMcClintockMorgan
Studied genetic material10011
Won a Nobel Prize00011
DiatomE. coliJellyfishKelpSponge
Has cell walls11010
Multicellular00111
Prokaryotic01000
Can make its own food11[1]010
Plankton[2]10100
Deciduous ForestDesertRainforestSavannaTundra
Is a forest10100
Is Boston’s biome10000
Tree densityHighLowHighMediumLow
Precipitation levelHighLowHighMediumLow
1. Though E. coli do not often do this, they have the ability to according to more recent research
2. Plankton are defined as drifting creatures who cannot swim against a current

## Appendix 2 - Step-by-step Grids

Here is each step of the “solution” annotated. Yellow is the correct answer, blue is the incorrectly eliminated one.

1. From the first part of (1), we can infer the species of Franklin.
• Both geckoes and snails are cold-blooded.
Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoX
GeckoOXXXX
PortobelloX
PotatoX
Snail1
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
1. Since the desert resident doesn't study genetic material, from (7), we know the name of who lives there.
• Both Goodall and Linnaeus did not study genetic material.
Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoX
GeckoOXXXX
PortobelloX
PotatoX
Snail1
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
Deciduous Forest X
DesertXO2XX
Rainforest X
Savanna X
Tundra X
1. The second half of (1) directly tells us the habitat of Linnaeus.
• Both rainforests and deciduous forests are forests.
Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoX
GeckoOXXXX
PortobelloX
PotatoX
Snail1
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
Deciduous ForestXXOXX
DesertXO2XX
Rainforest X3
Savanna XX
Tundra XX
1. Since McClintock is a Nobel Prize winner, from (5), we can also determine her pet.
• Both sponges and jellyfish are multicellular heterotrophs.
Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoX
GeckoOXXXX
PortobelloX
PotatoX
Snail1
Diatom X
E. coli X
JellyfishXXXOX
Kelp X
Sponge 4
Deciduous ForestXXOXX
DesertXO2XX
Rainforest X3
Savanna XX
Tundra XX
1. We can use the tree relation from (4) to place Franklin. With that marked, since we also know her species, we can additionally mark the habitat of her species.
• We know Franklin can’t be in the rainforest; both savannas and tundras have fewer trees.
• Following the second instruction, we unambiguously conclude (gecko, tundra).
Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoX X
GeckoOXXXXXXXXO
PortobelloX X
PotatoX X
Snail1 X
Diatom X
E. coli X
JellyfishXXXOX
Kelp X
Sponge 4
Deciduous ForestXXOXX
DesertXO2XX
RainforestXX3
Savanna5XX
TundraOXXXX
1. (6) tells us that deciduous forests only have species with cell walls: this tells us which pet-owning species lives there.
• Poth portobellos and potatoes have cell walls.
Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoX X X
GeckoOXXXXXXXXO
PortobelloX 6 X
PotatoX OXXXX
Snail1 X X
Diatom X
E. coli X
JellyfishXXXOX
Kelp X
Sponge 4
Deciduous ForestXXOXX
DesertXO2XX
RainforestXX3
Savanna5XX
TundraOXXXX
1. We next deduce the habitat of the egg-layer, from (2).
• Both dodos (RIP) and snails lay eggs.
Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoX XXOXX
GeckoOXXXXXXXXO
PortobelloX 6 X X
PotatoX OXXXX
Snail1 X 7 X
Diatom X
E. coli X
JellyfishXXXOX
Kelp X
Sponge 4
Deciduous ForestXXOXX
DesertXO2XX
RainforestXX3
Savanna5XX
TundraOXXXX
1. (2) also tells us which pet lives in the wet climate. We then infer from this chain that this pet belongs to the egg-layer.
• Both jellyfish and diatoms are plankton.
• We additionally unambiguously conclude that the dodo owns the jellyfish.
Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoX XXOXXXXOXX
GeckoOXXXXXXXXO X
PortobelloX 6 X X X
PotatoX OXXXX X
Snail1 X 7 X X
Diatom X 8
E. coli X X
JellyfishXXXOXXXOXX
Kelp X X
Sponge 4 X
Deciduous ForestXXOXX
DesertXO2XX
RainforestXX3
Savanna5XX
TundraOXXXX
1. Now we can use (8) to tell us the habitat of the portobello!
• Neither deserts nor savannas are forests.
Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoX XXOXXXXOXX
GeckoOXXXXXXXXO X
PortobelloX 69XOX X
PotatoX OXXXX X
Snail1 X 7XX X
Diatom X 8
E. coli X X
JellyfishXXXOXXXOXX
Kelp X X
Sponge 4 X
Deciduous ForestXXOXX
DesertXO2XX
RainforestXX3
Savanna5XX
TundraOXXXX
1. Since one of the pets is fully resolved, there's only really one choice left for potato's pet using (9).
• Both sponges and kelp are multicellular.
Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoX XXOXXXXOXX
GeckoOXXXXXXXXO XX
PortobelloX 69XOX XX
PotatoX OXXXXXXXO10
Snail1 X 7XX XX
Diatom X 8
E. coli X X
JellyfishXXXOXXXOXX
Kelp X X
Sponge 4 X
Deciduous ForestXXOXX
DesertXO2XX
RainforestXX3
Savanna5XX
TundraOXXXX
1. Finally, the second part of (3) tells us about the gecko's pet.
• Both diatoms and E. coli are prokaryotes.
Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoX XXOXXXXOXX
GeckoOXXXXXXXXO11OXX
PortobelloX 69XOX XXX
PotatoX OXXXXXXXO10
Snail1 X 7XX XXX
Diatom X 8
E. coli X X
JellyfishXXXOXXXOXX
Kelp X X
Sponge 4 X
Deciduous ForestXXOXX
DesertXO2XX
RainforestXX3
Savanna5XX
TundraOXXXX

Contrary to the solution's claim, the final grid is not unique.

Franklin
Goodall
Linnaeus
McClintock
Morgan
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Rainforest
Savanna
Tundra
Diatom
E. coli
Jellyfish
Kelp
Sponge
DodoXXXOXXXOXXXXOXX
GeckoOXXXXXXXXO11OXXX
PortobelloXXXXO69XOX XXX
PotatoXXOXXOXXXXXXXO10
Snail1OXXXXO7XX XXX
DiatomX XX X 8 X
E. coliOXXXXXXXXO
JellyfishXXXOXXXOXX
KelpXXOXXOXXXX
SpongeX X4 X X X
Deciduous ForestXXOXX
DesertXO2XX
RainforestXX3OX
Savanna5XXXO
TundraOXXXX