Lost in Translation
by Kiran Kedlaya

answer: DIGLOT

We have taken passages from 10 pieces of text and translated each into
two languages. Each piece of text dates (loosely in some cases) from
one of the years listed at top. For each year in order, figure out
which language was used for the translation of that text on the left
side and right side.  (The passages in each column are listed in
alphabetical order by language.)  This yields

1400 (G. Chaucer, Canterbury Tales): Spanish/Welsh
1997 (J.K. Rowling, first Harry Potter): French/Latin
1926 (A.A. Milne, Winnie the Pooh): Esperanto/Hungarian
1948 (Universal Declaration of Human Rights): Slovak/Dutch
1848 (K. Marx, Communist Manifesto): Greek/Japanese
1839 (E.A. Poe, Fall of the House of Usher): Catalan/Russian
1863 (A. Lincoln, Gettysburg Address): Hindi/Portuguese
1624 (W. Shakespeare, Hamlet): Polish/Chinese
1789 (Declaration of Independence): German/Korean
1517 (M. Luther, 95 Theses): Turkish/Italian

Taking the indicated letters from the languages above yields 
left side: SHOVEL DIRT
right side: LAND PARCEL

These define the words DIG and LOT (not PLOT!), which combine to spell
DIGLOT (which means "a text written in two different languages").